Following King John's loss of Normandy to King Philip Augustus in 1204, the familial ties that bound the Anglo-French nobility across the Channel spreading into Scotland gradually dissipated. Scotland's pivotal relationship with England and France transformed as Scottish families began to redefine their identity within a native Scottish and English context apart from their French roots. This book argues that the loss of Normandy ushered in a deep and profound shift in the political and cultural mentality of the Anglo-Scottish nobility. By the end of the thirteenth century, the number of Scottish families who still held land in France or made French marriages was slashed by two thirds. Cross-Channel relations were maintained mainly through the extended kin of the Scottish royal family, while the crown of Scotland focused more on promoting relations with England. Ironically, it was precisely this disintegration of kin-based, personal relations between the nobility of these three polities that made it necessary for a formal bond (The Treaty of Paris) to be forged between France and Scotland in 1295, referred to as an "Auld Amitie". M.A. Pollock gained her PhD from the University of St Andrews. She has since taught at St Andrews, the University of Edinburgh, Trinity College, Dublin, and University College Dublin.