Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges of the twenty-first century. Anthropogenic activities, such as fossil fuel consumption and other activities focused on enhancing economic growth, have been identified as the main drivers of changes in the environment that defy planetary boundaries. The transgression of planetary boundaries has profound implications for practically all biophysical and human systems and their impact could also be related to the exacerbation of existing problems such as land tenure insecurity, poverty and inequality, marginalization of poorer populations, climate induced migration, and resource wars or conflicts. From a global South perspective, research on the multifaceted nature of climate change is thus necessary and appropriate, including the analysis of socioeconomic, political and cultural aspects. This book is an outcome of the Comparative Research Workshop on 'Inequality and Climate Change: Perspectives from the South' of the South-South Collaborative Programme of CLACSO-CODESRIA-IDEAS. It gathers a diversity of case studies from the South with ample biophysical differences and particular social and cultural realities. As such, it is a fresh contribution offering a vantage point from which to examine some of the current perspectives on inequality and climate change.